Conditional release was limited to the place of residence from which he had no right to leave – this is the city.

Conditional release was limited to the place of residence from which he had no right to leave – this is the city.

The critic identifies four, albeit uneven, stages of I. Bagryany’s creative path: 1926-1932 – the beginning of the literary path, before the first arrest; 1932-1940 – the period of imprisonment and concentration camps; 1941-1945 – the period of the Second World War and the occupation of Ukraine; 1945-1963 – postwar period and emigration. The writer himself mentions the period of arrests, imprisonments, concentration camps, escapes, because legends have accumulated around these dramatic events: "In 1932 he was arrested for political (independent Ukrainian) bias in literature and politics and imprisoned in the so-called Kharkiv . "Internal prison" of the GPU, where he spent 11 months in solitary confinement, and then was sentenced to 5 years in concentration camps. The sentence was served in the camps of the so-called BAMLAG. He did not serve his term, escaped in 1937. He was re-arrested in early 1938 He was imprisoned in the UGB-NKVD prison in Kholodna Hora in Kharkiv for 2 years and 7 months. He was released in the autumn of 1940 under supervision due to a severe lung disease, and most importantly, according to the temporary release form, "for parole was limited. "Probation was limited to the place from which I had no right to leave – the city of Okhtyrka, where I was caught in the war. Before the war, he worked for several months at the Okhtyrka State Theater. Ator. After the outbreak of war he was at the front as a "people’s militia" and remained in German captivity. He worked for the Germans as an editor of the Ukrainian newspaper Golos Okhtyrshyny. In 1942 p. was supposed to be shot in accordance with the German course of the Ukrainian national intelligentsia, but he accidentally escaped … "The first chapter of the novel" Tiger Hunters "(1943) ends with a succinct sentence: athlete, aviator tchk … Sentenced to 25 years tchk … In the name – Gregory Mnogogrishny ". Of course, it is not necessary to literally" read "the biography of its creator from the fate of the protagonist of" Tiger Hunters "Hryhoriy Mnohohrishny, but the experiences of the" terrible state criminal "of his adventures in the taiga "belong" to Ivan Bagryany. After bein g sentenced in 1933 to five years in exile in the Far East, Ivan Bagryany fled in 1937 and hid in acquaintances in the Bureinsky and Suchansky districts. There he learned the strict but honest laws of the taiga, the lives of Ukrainian hunters, listened to various stories and felt the cold breath of mortal threat … The Far East, the wild Amur region, mysterious, like Eldorado, Green Wedge, where so enticed landless, thirsty for the freedom of Ukrainians – and the deaf slums of the taiga, in which, as on an alien planet, came concentration camps infested with machine guns and wolves. There, on the edge of the world, far from Ukraine, from the mainland, to the gloomy, unknown Kolyma, thousands of ragged, dirty, overgrown, disenfranchised, doomed Kyivans, Poltava, Kuban, Kherson – "children of another, sunny, land and another, sunny, sea "- a giant two-eyed Cyclops. Only the imagination of the great artist could create a symbolic picture of the parallel, almost independent existence in one state of two worlds – the world of darkness, hell and the world of illusory paradise, illusory free life. And these two worlds are personified in the symbolic images of two express trains, which madly fly through vast spaces – "into the unknown, forward, into the black Siberian night, to the edge of the world." Our famous director Yuri Ilyenko dreamed of creating a film based on "Tiger Hunters" who was fascinated by the opportunity to figuratively concentrate in symbolic express dragons a kind of typological series-evidence of Stalin’s totalitarian regime, the genre of adventure film the centuries-old energy of millions of Ukrainians, enraged by the spirit of disobedience and rush to freedom. Ivan Bagryany, by the will of tragic circumstances, "placed" himself, his destiny, in this terrible echelon of death – the special echelon of the OGPU-NKVD, elevating it to the image-symbol of disobedient and proud, freedom-loving and plundered Ukraine. That is why the hero of his "Tiger Hunters" is a proud descendant of the first convict of Siberia, the great-grandson of Hetman Demyan Mnogogrishny. Ch

However, Hryhoriy Mnohohrishny, at the will of the author, accomplishes the impossible – he jumps into the mouth of death from the belly of a mad dragon and with this mad protest revives in thousands of wasted, depersonalized prisoners a sense of human dignity, hope, conviction that among them do not give up, prefer "it is better to die running than to live rotting!" The hero of the novel "Tiger Hunter" Hryhoriy Mnohohrishny did not surrender, did not reconcile with his forcible status of a prisoner of a terrible system and remained a Man. For Ivan Bagryany, a man and an artist, this is the main thing: to convince the reader, to convince him that under any circumstances a person can and should be a Man. Even in the belly of the stage echelon, enraged by the mad flight, which carries into oblivion, into oblivion, like on the tail of a devilish comet, a mysterious legend about the disappearance of souls. Let him alone, the mad daredevil Hryhoriy Mnohohrishny, not resign himself to the doom of oblivion in the terrible legend of the disappearance of souls in the hell of concentration camps, rebelled, escaped from the mouth of this dragon. But this is already a victory for people, this is evidence of the invincibility of the spirit and the possibility of overcoming the enraged monster. And after the giant two-eyed Cyclops on the same Trans-Siberian highway rolled joyful and festive, full of light, laughter, bells, flowers, songs, and other express. He raced .to the edge of the earth "the color of the workers ‚and peasants‘ empire in all its grandeur and versatility" – seekers of mind-boggling adventures, instant happiness, fugitives, adventurous enthusiasts and new conquistadors … "The whole express was filled with them, creators separate the world on wheels – and narrative topic sentence at the same time reproducing a copy of that fantastic "sixth part of the world" – a copy in miniature, a little pinched and decelerated. "These modern amateur tiger hunters , exotic lovers, rascals, smugglers, embezzlers and powerful bureaucrats are united in this kind of extraterritorial state of blissful independence with professional tiger hunters who go hunting for people in order to preserve its proletarian state and purity. The plot outline of the novel is based on the "hunt" of NKVD Major Medvin, the newest tiger hunter, for a proud, untamed by the totalitarian system young "tiger" from Ukraine, who found freedom in the taiga, countrymen, friends, love … Hryhoriy Mnohohrishny wins. First of all, because he does not recognize himself as zero in history, did not beast, did not worry about anger and hatred for people, retained humanity, kindness, the ability to empathize, empathize and believe that man can and should challenge the terrible system and survive. Ivan Bagryany persevered. After hiding in the Far East, he returned home illegally. Because this day was a day of returning to our hearts. And he expressed this indefatigable thirst for his native land in "Tiger Hunters". When Hryhoriy and his fiancée Natalka, who had never seen their Ukraine, were born and raised in the Far East, broke through the border and thought, dreamed of paving the way for the future, they were overwhelmed by a powerful impulse to comprehend Ukraine and a confused faith in their star. dedicated the way to them – the way to life. The way there – somewhere to that distant, for one of them completely unknown, sunny Ukraine. Or to the heroic battle and death for that distant, for that unknown, for that dreamed Ukraine ". Because Gregory the Great sinned. He overcame despair and hopelessness, physical exhaustion and meanness of Stalin’s tiger hunters, straightened up majestically and proudly. Because he remained a Man-. He established himself in the belief that man is the greatest of all earthly beings. Ivan Bagryany himself was just approaching the terrible mouth of a totalitarian dragon. He was arrested four days after returning home. And prison again. For two years and seven months, of which 83 days – in a death cell. Later, in the novel The Garden of Gethsemane (1950), which Volodymyr Vynnychenko called "a great, egregious and terrible document," the writer emphasized: "Man is the greatest of all beings. Man is the most unhappy of all beings. Man is the meanest of all beings. it is difficult to choose the first of these three headings to prove by example. "Ivan Bagryany, in proof of the legitimacy of the" first thesis ", again throws a man into the fiery mouth of the devil," choosing "for this inhuman test of humanity the young man Andriy Chumak. It tells about the four sons of the old, already deceased Yakov Chumak, who allegedly spiritually supports and "accompanies" his youngest – Andriy – through the labyrinths of the NKVD internal prison, where he has to go through all Dante’s circles of torture, night interrogations, insults, bullying. provocations of the bloody Ezhov era. And again, both after Hryhoriy Mnohohrishny and Andriy Chumak, the figure of their creator rises, who endowed his heroes with his own experiences, and, most importantly, with memories and impressions. "All the names in this book , such as the names of all NKVD and prison administration employees depicted here, as well as all the names of prisoners (except for a few changed ones), are true, "Ivan Bagryany said on the cover page of the Garden of Gethsemane.. He pr eferred that the world know these state tiger hunters and that their victims not go missing, try to describe in detail, sometimes to the detriment of art, the terrible daily life of innocent sinners of this hell on earth. The author’s imagination here was inexpedient, the creative emotional arbitrariness of his figurative thinking was extinguished before the deafening darkness of Stalin’s prison hell, in which man was methodically transformed into a faceless, passive, disgustingly submissive being. But the glorious blacksmith family of the Chumaks – four brothers and sister Gali – did not surrender, did not break under the cruel pressure of torture, provocations, insinuations, forgery, lies …

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