Quasi-means include informal groups and a working atmosphere.

Quasi-means include informal groups and a working atmosphere.

It is necessary to take into account the range and complexity of the activities, on the basis of which the salary is assigned and the requirements for the level of education and experience of the applicant are determined. However, it is an assessment of the actual workplace, regardless of the person who occupies it.

The evaluation of the employee involves the evaluation of his personal contribution. To do this, use a system of grades and scores, the content of which must be unambiguous. One person should not evaluate an employee. This tool is used in personnel planning and in the system of personal development. This assessment helps to identify the abilities and development opportunities of the individual employee. It can also be a basis for training and retraining, dismissal and relocation. Given that the evaluation of the employee can help increase his salary, it is a motivating factor.

Quasi-means include informal groups and a working atmosphere.

Formal business groups, such as working groups, are created in any organization for business reasons. At the same time, so-called informal groups are created on the basis of personal relationships. The reasons for their creation are different. People can form groups because they live in the same place, study in the same institution, are members of the same association, and for other reasons.

There are the following sociological and organizational reasons for the creation of informal groups:

social differences (for example, between workers and employees or locals and foreigners); clearly defined centralization and formalization of the organizational structure (anonymity of large teams strengthens the desire to create small groups that can give a sense of confidence and security); gaps in the formal organization, leading to the formation of temporary organizational structures with informal leaders whom employees trust; lack of information, due to which employees use unauthorized information channels (this can cause rumors and lead to misrepresentation); negative contacts between employees and management, especially under authoritarian and remote management, when there is a danger of choosing a group of informal leader who occupies a strong position due to their own abilities or personal qualities.

Informal groups can positively influence the activities of the organization, increasing the cohesion or motivation of group members. It happens that they are fighting for power.

Given that, on the one hand, it is impossible and, on the other hand, undesirable to fight informal associations and prevent their formation, the task of management is to analyze the structure of „informals“ and take measures to develop groups that positively affect the activities of organizations, and blocking those whose impact has negative consequences for the activities of the organization as a whole. The management of the organization should facilitate the integration of informal relations into a formal structure in order to perform production tasks.

Feelings of satisfaction and desire to work largely depend on the working atmosphere prevailing in the organization. The main factors are the relationship between employees, working conditions, clear (or fuzzy) division of powers, management style, positive or negative influence of informal groups and the relationship between management and subordinates.

The well-known truth is that it is easier and happier to work in the absence of tension and conflict. Therefore, managers must care about the problems of subordinates, not only professional but also personal.

The working atmosphere can be considered today in the context of a broader concept of management culture, which contains all the basic values ​​and attitudes that characterize the joint work and interaction of employees. Management culture is not limited to good relations within the organization, it includes relations with the environment – customers, visitors, those who are hired, and others. An important factor in management culture is the management style on which the working atmosphere depends.


Bandurka OM Department of Internal Affairs of Ukraine. – Kharkiv, 1998. Blake RR, Mouton JS Scientific methods of management: Per. with English – K., 1992. Grachev MV Super frames. Personnel management in an international corporation. – M., 1993. Kolpakov VM Management methods. —K., 1997. Krasovsky Yu.D. Organizational behavior. – M., 1999. Mescon M., Albert M., Hedoury F. Fundamentals of Management: Per. with English.— M., 1998. Ober-Chris J. Enterprise management: Per. with fr. – M., 1997. Odegov Yu.G., Zhuravlev PV Personnel management. – M., 1997.


Organization: the essence of the function and basic theories. Abstract

The abstract provides information about the essence of the function of the organization. The basics of the theory of organization are described

The essence of the function of the organization

In the process of studying this topic, it is important, first of all, to understand the essence of three key categories: „organization“ „organizational process (activity)“ „organizational structure“. They are all closely related, but not synonymous.

The organization is a management function, within which the division of labor between individual workers and their groups and the coordination of their activities. The implementation of the function of the organization is carried out in the process of organizational activities.

Organizational activity is the process by which a manager eliminates uncertainty, disorder, confusion, and conflict between people about https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ work or authority, and creates an environment conducive to their joint activities.

The main components of the organizational process (organizational activities) are (they are discussed in more detail in the third question of the lecture):

a) division of labor – the division of general work in the organization into separate components, sufficient to perform an individual worker in accordance with his qualifications and abilities; b) grouping of works and types of activity into certain blocks (groups, departments, sectors, shops, productions, etc.) – departmentalization; c) subordination of each such group to the head, who receives the necessary powers (delegation of powers); d) determining the number of workers directly subordinate to the manager (setting the range of control); e) ensuring vertical and horizontal coordination of works and activities (creation of coordination mechanisms).

Organizational process is a rather complex type of activity. Its complexity lies in the need to choose a solution from many possible alternatives, each of which is not inferior to the rest in terms of rationality of organizational decision-making. The end result of organizational activity is the choice of a certain position on all continua of the components of organizational activity. This choice ultimately forms the organizational structure.

Organizational structure in management theory is defined as an abstract category characterized by three organizational parameters:

degree of complexity; degree of formalization; degree of centralization.

Complexity means how many distinct features an organization has. The deeper the division of labor, the more vertical levels in the management hierarchy, the more structural units, the more difficult it is to coordinate the activities of people in the organization.

The degree to which an organization relies on rules and procedures to guide the behavior of its employees is a degree of formalization. The more rules and regulators in an organization that indicate what employees can and cannot do, the more formal the organization’s structure is.

Centralization determines the place where the right to make decisions is mainly concentrated. If all decisions (or most of them) are made by senior executives, then the organization is centralized. Decentralization means that the right to make certain decisions is transferred from higher levels of government to lower ones.

Fundamentals of organizational theory

According to the criterion of time in the development of the theory of organization are:

classical (hierarchical) theory of organization; neoclassical (behavioral) theory of organization; modern (situational) theory of organization.

The classical theory of organization was formed as a general theoretical approach to determining organizational parameters, which is based on:

studied the anatomy of the organization; its formal structure; division of labor and specialization; using hierarchy in building an organization.

The focus of neoclassical (behavioral) theory of organizations is the person in the organization, more specifically – socio-psychological relations, individual and group relationships, decentralization of powers and more.

Modern theory considers the organization as an open system that is in constant interaction with its external environment, to which it must adapt. Modern theory of organization aims to study the mechanisms of adaptation of the organization to its environment.

The classical theory of organization is based on the results of research by A. Fayol and M. Weber. They tried to identify the general characteristics and patterns of management of any organization. For the purpose of their research, they set the selection of „universal principles of management“ by which you can ensure the success of the organization.

Another well-known theorist of the classical school of organizational theory was M. Weber („Theory of Social and Economic Organizations“ 1947). He formulated the concept of an ideal bureaucracy as a result of an empirical analysis of church, governmental, military, and commercial organizations. Weber saw bureaucracy as a normative model, as an ideal that all organizations should strive to achieve.

According to Weber, the ideal bureaucracy has the following 5 main characteristics:

high degree of division of labor – each operation must be performed by a specialist; clear management hierarchy – each lower level is controlled by the higher and subordinated to it; numerous rules, standards and performance indicators – the organization must develop and establish a set of rules and standards to ensure a certain unity of performance; „spirit of formal impersonality“ – managers must manage the business in the absence of sympathies and preferences for individual employees; recruitment in the organization should be carried out solely on the business and professional qualities of each employee.

Table 1. Strengths and weaknesses of the ideal bureaucracy.