Kyiv, 1959. Ivan Franko: articles and materials // „Ukrainian Literary Studies“ №11.

Kyiv, 1959. Ivan Franko: articles and materials // „Ukrainian Literary Studies“ №11.

Soviet literary critics, unable to hide this blatant puncture of the Marxist Frank, found "justification": Franco was simply wrong, because he was not yet hardened enough to distinguish "the truth" from "bourgeois lies"…

In the second half of 1879, Franco decides to make a kind "expedition" in order to explain Marxist ideas among the popular intelligentsia of the older generation. He places in "The truth" his translation of the work of the German socialist Hans Schell "Socio-political supporters in Germany" which later came out with a preface by Frank "Small library"… Version "The truth" tried to express his attitude to socialism in general and Shell in particular, to which Franco immediately responded with an article "Version buy an comparison essay cheap now "The truth" in the fight against windmills" aimed at the same as and "Critical letters about the Galician intelligentsia" – exposure and debunking.

So, an agreement with the populists did not work this time either. "Small library" it was not enough to propagate revolutionary ideas in full voice, and in 1879 Franco began work on organizing his own newspaper. But it happened differently. In the spring of 1880, Frank was imprisoned, and when he was released from prison three months later, he was literally threatened with starvation. Like-minded people raised funds for only one book – a story "At the bottom" which was the last, fourteenth issue "Small library"…

"A small library" Undoubtedly, it had a certain influence on public opinion, drawing the attention of both young and senior intellectuals to modern science and literature. Although this time financial hardship and political persecution prevented Franko from continuing the project, he later resumed it in the form of "Scientific library" and "Peasant library"…


Malyarenko LL Ivan Franko – editor. – Lviv, 1970. Day OI Revolutionary-democratic press in Ukraine. – Kyiv, 1959. Ivan Franko: articles and materials // "Ukrainian literary criticism" No. 11. – Lviv 1970. Ivan Franko in the memoirs of contemporaries. – Lviv, 1956. Franko I. Literary-critical articles. – Kyiv, 1950.


Ivan Franko as the editor of the magazine "World"… Abstract

The period of existence of the magazine "World" – 1881-82 – marked by a significant weakening of the revolutionary movement of radicals and the strengthening of their ideological opponents, Muscovites and especially populists

In 1880 there were publications that were destined to play a huge, almost decisive role in the consolidation of Galicians: the magazine "Star" and newspaper "Work"…

Ivan Franko collaborates in "Delhi" – at that time a truly advanced publication that set itself the goal of reaching a compromise with Muscovites – as he collaborated in the popular edition "Truth" edited by the same V. Barvinsky, before its closure in 1880. Justifying himself before Drahomanov and other like-minded people, he called the only reason for cooperation in the publications of opponents terrible financial hardship. In fact, Barvinsky did everything to involve in the creation "Affairs" as many young progressive authors as possible, including among radicals.

Narodovska, or "Ukrainophile" For many years, the press took the leading place in popularity among Galician Ukrainians of all social strata. Barvinsky’s course of understanding with representatives of other parties helped "Business" to expand its audience at the expense of the pro-Muscovite or pro-Marxist part of Galicians. In order to compete with the populists, radical journalists needed to develop a qualitatively new concept, learn moderation, and rethink the very idea of ​​their publications.

Another popular newspaper – "Home" Yu. Romanchuk – was founded in 1879 and achieved great success. Franco praised Romanchuk’s editorial skills and readiness "Homeland" to compromise not only with political opponents, but with the eternal "adversary" Galician Ukrainians – Poles. But "Home" did not appreciate the step forward that Pavlyk and Drahomanov took in 1881, offering the publication cooperation. Romanchuk refused, citing differences in political views. Franco himself, though appreciated "Homeland" positively, in every way dissuaded Pavlyk from trying to unite with the populists.

Thus, from the end of 1879, Franco nurtured new plans for the publication of the newspaper. He wrote the program of the publication called "A new basis"… This program was, according to established tradition, composed mostly of "debunking and exposing" popular and Muscovite press.

But from Franko’s letters to Pavlyk and Drahomanov, from his own notes, a holistic image of a truly quite progressive publication is collected, which, despite forced restraint (to appease censorship), would serve to implement and bring to the masses Franko’s much more mature and independent ideas. … "Let the thoughts that will intercede "New foundation" diverge everywhere, let them take root in all heads, let them truly become the basis for the development of clear, gradual beliefs, the basis for causing a new, more lively intentional movement in us, for spiritual connection, for the joint work of the whole intelligentsia for the people!"

However, Franco did not receive permission to publish the newspaper. The reason for this was that he was not 24 years old and according to the new law on the press could not be an editor, as well as Ivan Beley and Mykhailo Pavlyk. At first the student Stepan Zhidovsky agreed to be the fictitious person-editor, but, having seen that in the program "A new basis" police highlighted in red "the principle of collectivism" scared and refused.

Beley and Terletsky advised to postpone the publication "A new basis" until the following year, Franco insisted that the promises must be kept (because "New foundation" was widely advertised among pro-radical youth). Funds for the publication of the newspaper were begged with great difficulty by Frank in Greater Ukraine. This time Drahomanov did not support the publication, and Franco did not expect any advice or help from him.

In 1879 and 1880 editions "A new basis" it was impossible. Suffering from terrible hardships, Franco first joined the army, and in March 1880 he was imprisoned, where he was released only in June. Severely ill, Franco was treated in his native village until the autumn, and in October, returning to Lviv, he resumed his activities with a radical publication.

It was decided to publish a monthly magazine (to the concept of the newspaper itself "A new foundation" never returned), whose editor-in-chief was Ivan Beley, and he was named "World"… The actual editor was Franco. The practical purpose of the magazine "World" was, as Franco wrote in one of his letters to Drahomanov in November 1880, was "to contribute to the excitation and maintenance of a more lively movement among young people and even among the people"…

Frank’s present moderation cannot be compared with the youthful zeal of 1878. "There are so few socialists in Galicia, they are so scattered and intimidated that it is impossible to think of any organization between them. And to such an organization is not fast and achieves, although now can hope for the printed word at least something to turn people in that direction"… This is not the kind of Franco who was convinced of the quick and easy victory of Marxism in Galicia and around the world.

From the beginning, according to Frank’s plan, the editorial office "literary, scientific and political journal" which was proclaimed "World" was divided into many departments, "departments" each of which had to be edited by the relevant department of the newspaper. But, having fulfilled Pavlik’s worst expectations, the students, to whose conscience most departments were given, did not justify the trust of the editors, and Drahomanov completely refused the historical department offered to him. So Franco and Beley, with a few students, had to do this titanic work themselves.

The magazine was indeed extremely democratic, in it, as Franco himself wrote, Galician Ukrainians met for the first time, "malorosi" and Ukrainian emigrants: Beley, Franko, Terletsky, O. Konysky, B. Hrinchenko, Drahomanov, F. Vovk. However, it is in "The world" Frank’s role was extremely large. Approximately 6/10 of the volume of all issues "The world" (21 issues were published in January 1881-September 1882) occupied the works of Frank.

In all editions without exception "The world" printed in parts of the story "Borislav laughs" Frank’s story was also published "Good salary"… Other literary works published in "The world" in particular, O. Konysky’s essays looked very weak in comparison with Frankov’s. Franco carried out all the huge editorial work while in Nahujevychi.

Edition "The world" was a continuous crisis: circulations of 250-300 copies, permanent loans and thousands of debts, begging for money from Eastern Ukrainian like-minded people. Franco, being in terrible financial difficulties, at the same time refused Kulishev, who offered him to sponsor "World" which would ideologically become his, Kulishev’s, publication. Franco continued to work for the Polish newspaper "Work" investing in "World" all received fees.

If in "Public friends" Frank’s pro-Marxist speeches looked like manifestos, then in "The world" they are much more moderate, the theme of the working class is understood, as a rule, through works of art (continued "Boryslav cycle") and philosophical and economic writings such as "Think about evolution in the history of mankind" where Marxism merged with Frank’s own quite valid theories.

The relationship between the intelligentsia and other social strata, as well as the role of the intelligentsia in society remained one of the leitmotifs of the Franko edition. Unlike previous publications, whose main occupation was exposing the spirit "Letters about the Galician intelligentsia" "World" paid much more attention to the specific program of action of the advanced intelligentsia and its implementation.

Frank’s articles are especially notable in this respect "Should we return to the people?" "A few words about how to organize and run our people’s publishing houses" "Will we wake up now?"… However, marriage "exposure and debunking" seemed a disadvantage "The world" Franko’s comrades: Pavlyk, Belya and Drahomanov, who blamed Franko for "disregard for the life of the Galician public"… Beley continued the exposing line in his articles "At one o’clock" "About the last election of the ambassador to the state council" etc., which affected both Muscovites, whose activities really took on some very funny features (such as ceremonial trips to the Russian numismatic society), and the most progressive populists at the time.